|The Image of Evil in Romanesque Art of the Way of Saint James in Navarra|
|Maria Experanza Aragones Estella|
|Navarra: Universidad de Navarra, 1994|
PhD dissertation at the Universidad de Navarra, Spain.
"This Ph.D. dissertation is a study of the images of evil in the Way of Saint James of Navarra and the Romanesque period (XI and XII centuries). These representations are compared with those located in other points of the Romanesque style in Navarra, in Spanish and European churches: especially Romanesque churches in France located in the Pilgrim's Road to Santiago. Some representations are compared with images that belong to other artistic periods; for example, pre-Romanesque images from Beatos and illuminated books from X and XII centuries or Gothic images from Spanish or French churches, are included. This study is organized in five chapters, which include in a thematic way the group of evil images in Navarra. The first one is dedicated to the devil's image in Biblical scenes: the devil in the Old Testament, New Testament and Apocalypse. We also try to study the devil in the hagiographic scenes: Saint Michael and Saint George slaying the dragon and the devil in Saint Andrew's life. Finally we discuss isolated images of the devil located in corbels of religious buildings. The second chapter refers to the image of Hell in the Romanesque art, sculpted as the cauldron and the mouth of Leviathan or a monster's mouth. Third chapter is about the deadly sins Lust, Avarice, Gluttony, Sloth, Pride and Wrath. We have not found any representations of Envy. In the fourth chapter we refer to the negative bestiaries that include beasts with evil significance, not only fantastic but also real animals. Finally, in the fifth chapter we study profane music and its negative significance. In the conclusion we summarize the main characteristics of the dissertation and we expose influences of classical art, and Jewish and Islamic scatology influences on the Way of Saint James in Navarra. Finally we prove that those artistic forms are influenced by the customs, folklore and popular culture." - abstract