|"Medieval uroscopy and its representation on misericords"|
| Clinical Medicine, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians, 2:1, 2002, 75-77
Web site/resource link
"By the fifteenth century the practice of uroscopy was falling into disrepute and the uroscopy flask (matula) became a symbol of ridicule. On the carved misericords in choir stalls, the physician holding the matula was commonly represented as an ape, with the allegorical implications of foolishness, vanity and even lechery. The ape uroscopist was frequently shown with his friend the fox, an animal that was often used to satirise the less-than-perfect cleric, and this association may reflect the close ties between the medical and clerical professions in the medieval period."