|The Monstrous Races in Medieval Art and Thought|
|John Block Friedman|
|Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000|
"The unusual races of men that make up the subject of this book represented alien yet real cultures existing beyond the boundaries of the European known world from antiguity through the Middle Ages. They occur with great frequency in medieval art and literature... I call them "monstrous" because that is their most common description in the Middle Ages. But many of these peoples were not monstrous at all. They simply differed in physical appearance and social practices from the person describing them. ... Even the most bizarre, however, were not supernatural or infernal creatures, but varieties of men..." - Friedman, Introduction.
Reprint of 1981 Harvard University Press edition, with corrections and a new bibliography.